# Correcting Perspective Projections in 3D Graphics: 2009Scape Ground Items

One of the most critical operations in computer graphics is the projection of a 3D world onto a 2D plane. This operation allows 3D objects to be displayed on conventional 2D screens, enabling us to play 3D video games or run simulations. This transformation is achieved through perspective projections. However, issues can arise when these transformations don't account for different screen sizes or aspect ratios, resulting in skewed and distorted images. In this article, we will delve into the process of correcting these perspective distortions.

## Perspective Projections: A Primer

Perspective projection is a type of projection in which the 3D coordinates of an object are transformed into 2D coordinates. It creates an illusion of depth and distance. The further away an object is from the viewer, the smaller it appears on the screen.

However, the proportions of objects can sometimes be distorted due to different screen sizes and aspect ratios. The goal of our investigation was to correct this distortion.

A typical function for creating a perspective projection looks like this:

``````// Method to set the projection matrix used in OpenGL rendering
private static void setProjectionMatrix(
float left,      // arg0
float right,     // arg1
float bottom,    // arg2
float top,       // arg3
float nearClip,  // arg4
float farClip    // arg5
) {
float nearClipDouble = nearClip * 2.0F;

// Set the elements of the projection matrix
matrix[0] = nearClipDouble / (right - left);
matrix[1] = 0.0F;
matrix[2] = 0.0F;
matrix[3] = 0.0F;
matrix[4] = 0.0F;
matrix[5] = nearClipDouble / (top - bottom);
matrix[6] = 0.0F;
matrix[7] = 0.0F;
matrix[8] = (right + left) / (right - left);
matrix[9] = (top + bottom) / (top - bottom);
matrix[10] = -(farClip + nearClip) / (farClip - nearClip);
matrix[11] = -1.0F;
matrix[12] = 0.0F;
matrix[13] = 0.0F;
matrix[14] = -(nearClipDouble * farClip) / (farClip - nearClip);
matrix[15] = 0.0F;

// Load the created matrix into OpenGL

}``````

## Incorporating Field of View (FOV)

Field of view (FOV) plays a critical role in 3D projections. It represents the extent of the observable world at any given moment. FOV essentially determines how zoomed in or zoomed out the final image appears. Horizontal FOV (hFOV) and Vertical FOV (vFOV) represent the FOV in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively.

To correct the perspective projection, we started by extracting the hFOV and vFOV from the projection matrix. The projection matrix, in computer graphics, is a matrix that transforms the coordinates in the view space to the clip space. We reverse-engineered this matrix and replaced hardcoded FOV values with the extracted hFOV and vFOV. Here is a simplified example of such a function:

The horizontal and vertical FOVs (field of view) are calculated based on the values of the left, right, bottom, and top clipping planes and the near clipping distance. They represent the extent of the observable world that can be seen from the perspective of the camera at any given moment. The calculations use the formula 2 atan((right - left) / (2 nearClip)) and 2 atan((top - bottom) / (2 nearClip)) respectively, which are derived from simple trigonometry.

``````// Method to set the projection matrix used in OpenGL rendering
private static void setProjectionMatrix(
float left,      // arg0
float right,     // arg1
float bottom,    // arg2
float top,       // arg3
float nearClip,  // arg4
float farClip    // arg5
) {
float nearClipDouble = nearClip * 2.0F;

...

// Calculate the horizontal and vertical field of view
double hFOV = 2 * Math.atan((right - left) / nearClipDouble);
double vFOV = 2 * Math.atan((top - bottom) / nearClipDouble);

// Convert to degrees
hFOV = Math.toDegrees(hFOV);
vFOV = Math.toDegrees(vFOV);

// Load the created matrix into OpenGL
}``````

## Implementing the Solution

With the hFOV and vFOV now available, we could adjust the projection of our 3D world onto the 2D screen accordingly.

Our application involves a function that transforms 3D world coordinates (entityX, entityY, entityZ) into 2D screen coordinates. The challenge was to adjust the entity's screen position (spriteDrawX, spriteDrawY) based on the hFOV and vFOV. Here's how the function looked like:

``````/**
* Calculates the 2D screen position for a position in the SceneGraph.
*
* @param entityX The x-coordinate of the entity in the scene graph.
* @param entityZ The z-coordinate of the entity in the scene graph.
* @param yOffset The vertical displacement for positioning the entity.
* @return An array containing the calculated screen coordinates [x, y] or [-1, -1] if entity is not visible.
*/
public static int[] CalculateSceneGraphScreenPosition(int entityX, int entityZ, int yOffset) {
final int HALF_FIXED_WIDTH = 256;
final int HALF_FIXED_HEIGHT = 167;

int elevation = SceneGraph.getTileHeight(plane, entityX, entityZ) - yOffset;
entityX -= SceneGraph.cameraX;
elevation -= SceneGraph.cameraY;
entityZ -= SceneGraph.cameraZ;

int sinPitch = MathUtils.sin[Camera.cameraPitch];
int cosPitch = MathUtils.cos[Camera.cameraPitch];
int sinYaw = MathUtils.sin[Camera.cameraYaw];
int cosYaw = MathUtils.cos[Camera.cameraYaw];

int rotatedX = (entityZ * sinYaw + entityX * cosYaw) >> 16;
entityZ = (entityZ * cosYaw - entityX * sinYaw) >> 16;
entityX = rotatedX;

int rotatedY = (elevation * cosPitch - entityZ * sinPitch) >> 16;
entityZ = (elevation * sinPitch + entityZ * cosPitch) >> 16;
elevation = rotatedY;

int[] screenPos = new int[2]; // X,Y

if (entityZ >= 50) {
if(GetWindowMode() == WindowMode.FIXED) {
screenPos[0] = HALF_FIXED_WIDTH + ((entityX << 9) / entityZ);
screenPos[1] = HALF_FIXED_HEIGHT + ((elevation << 9) / entityZ);
} else {
Dimension canvas = GetWindowDimensions();
double newViewDistH = (canvas.width / 2) / Math.tan(Math.toRadians(GlRenderer.hFOV) / 2);
double newViewDistV = (canvas.height / 2) / Math.tan(Math.toRadians(GlRenderer.vFOV) / 2);
screenPos[0] = canvas.width / 2 + (int)((entityX * newViewDistH) / entityZ);
screenPos[1] = canvas.height / 2 + (int)((elevation * newViewDistV) / entityZ);
}
} else {
screenPos[0] = -1;
screenPos[1] = -1;
}
return screenPos;
}``````

We used the tangent function from trigonometry to calculate the new viewing distance based on hFOV and vFOV, and used it to calculate the new screen positions.

## Practical Application: 2009Scape Plugin

This theory becomes practical in the realm of game development. For example, in a plugin developed for the game 2009Scape, this corrected perspective projection is used to draw text above items onscreen. This plugin is a quality of life add-on that helps players determine which item drops are valuable and which should be ignored. Accurate world-to-screen projections are crucial in ensuring the text appears at the correct on-screen location, regardless of the player's perspective or window size.

## Wrapping Up

This journey into perspective projections and field of view showcases the importance of understanding fundamental computer graphics concepts. By correctly implementing these concepts, we can create a more enjoyable and realistic gaming experience, improve our computational efficiency, and broaden our understanding of 3D graphics in general. It's a testament to the power of computer graphics when well understood and well applied.

Stay tuned for more deep dives into the world of computer graphics and game development. Until next time!

# Is ExitLag Worth it? (Exitlag Review) WTFast, NoPing, Haste Explained

Hey gamers! Do you want to lower your ping in Fortnite, Valorant, Call of Duty Warzone, Apex Legends, or League of Legends? Well This is just the article for you. I personally use ExitLag to lower my ping in League of Legends from 82ms to 60ms.

When you look to connect to a website or service your computer makes a request to server. This is also true of games. When connecting to a match your computer establishes a connection with a server through its IP address. Normally having that connection take an inefficient route towards its final destination is not a problem. An additional 200ms of latency for packets coming from YouTube or Netflix can easily be solved by those applications managing a buffer of data. However real time applications like games must send many packets a second along this route and that latency can really make a difference. By utilizing built in scanning tools these programs work out a way to forward your gaming traffic along the internet in a predictable and optimized way. This results in lower ping or latency as well as lower jitter and packet loss.

I mainly use this program while I am at the lake as my home in the city doesn't have routing issues. Programs like ExitLag and WTFast work by providing optimized routing for your gaming traffic. This is achieved by essentially running a VPN connection to their own server infrastructure to forward your packets efficiently.

All of these programs offer a free trail as they will not be useful for everyone. People living in highly populated cities with close servers are going to see the least amount of benefit from using a gaming VPN service. Check out my video explaining this topic more in depth if you're looking for additional information!

# League of Legends Windows 10 vs Windows 11 Gaming Performance

Microsoft's latest Operating System Windows 11 is now available for early adopters and testers. If you are curious about the performance implications of this newest Windows update and how it applies to League of Legends this in depth Performance Comparison between Windows 10 1809 and Windows 11 21H2 has you covered!

Hardware

• RTX 2080 8GB
• i7 9700K @ 3.6Ghz
• 16GB DDR4 RAM
• NVMe SSD

Drivers/OS

• NVIDIA 465.98
• Windows 10 1809
• Windows 11 21H2

League of Legends

• Maxed Preset @ 1920x1080
• 240 FPS Framerate Limit (Recommend)
• VSync Disabled
• Patch 11.15

Results

• Windows 10 Average FPS: 168
• Windows 11 Average FPS: 171
• Performance Gain Percent: ~2%

## Recording Settings

Recorded with an external capture device and stats tracked with Riva Tuner

H.264 veryfast preset, 2500kbps Bitrate, 1920x1080

Dota 2 OpenGL vs Vulkan performance in Linux https://downthecrop.xyz/blog/dota-2-opengl-vs-vulkan-linux/

# OP.GG For Tecent/WeGame and Chinese SuperServer

Alternative Frontend for WeGame Match History and Account Lookups.

Provides account lookups, match history, profile multi-search, statistics and more. Like OP.GG or Blitz.gg for the Chinese (CN) League of Legends Servers. Available for all area ID's including the Super Server (Dopa/Apdo plays here) which is Area ID 31.

Pregame lobby Multisearch, Game Details and Profile Statistics from WeGame/Tencent League of Legends LoL API

# Features:

• Match History
• Match Details
• Multisearch